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Investors, analysts and media are invited to take part in a conference call. As per 30 December, the Company. A new portable and easy-to-use induction heater from SKF makes the hot-mounting of bearings and similar parts, fast and safe.
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This outline is then the starting gun for both Engineering and Styling. Engineering can develop its basic concept consisting of a phantom drawing which includes all firm design characteristics; size of interior compartment and desired luggage space, engine position and type of drive line, Wheelbase and exterior dimensions plus ergonomic demands.
Once these guidelines are set Styling goes into action. The stylists produce many sketches of possible car forms as they edge their way towards a final shape.
A new design leaves the paper work stage for the first time at this point. Three or four particularly promising solutions are chosen from roughly a dozen good styling suggestions and transferred to three-dimensional plasticine models in a scale of 1 As soon as one of these 1 :5 models is chosen a styling buck, sometimes called the seating buck, is built in the workshop.
This is a 1 :1 mock-up and one of the most important early-stage tools. It forms the basis for evaluating the chances of a body concept.
And it indicates whether theoretical measurements for interior, luggage and engine compartments can actually be realized in practice, while revealing the actual conditions for entry, seating and vision as well.
Meanwhile the project management has not been idle. Along with coordinating activities between Engineering, Styling and Model Building, it has solved its main task during this first development stage - working out a complete project book, This compiles detailed demands from all areas against which the maturity of our designed and tested vehicle will later be measured.
This project book outlines, among other things: - A technical production description with measurements, weights, seating conditions and tank capacity, expected driving performance and handling, layout of.
This project book, once approved by a firm's management, is the definitive plan for all further work. It includes every basic requirement for the vehicle under development and provides precise direction.
Later alterations to a project book are greatly feared since, as a rule, they set off an uncontrollable chain reaction touching every aspect.
Fixed dates can no longer be met, work already done by other departments is invalidated at a stroke and costs soar. Therefore, alterations to a project book are only approved under pressure of extreme circumstance - new mandates from the lawmakers, for instance, or grave changes in market conditions.
While this project book is still being juggled Engineering has already initiated tasks for which the basic concept gave sufficient foundation and for which there is particular time pressure.
These involve designs and drawings for parts which carry long production deadlines or test periods including crankcase, cylinder head and so forth.
The Experimental Department also swings into action at this early stage. In close concert with Engineering the test team influences certain decisions through its preliminary experiments.
Using modified production cars and outside vehicles they research the workability of suggestions and test the suitability of a basic concept.
The second half-year in the development life of an automobile is a phase of total effort from Engineering and Styling. Alter the selected 1 :5 model has been optimized in a wind tunnel a 1 :1 model, also of plasticine, is created in the styling workshop, the so-called Studio, and its surface covered with a plastic foil which makes it look deceptively like a properly painted car.
This life-size model serves management as a basis for approval of the exterior form. Shortly thereafter another 1 ; 1 model is made of hard foam.
The first plastic body parts are taken from it and fitted to an improvised platform equipped with engine, gearbox and suspension mock-ups.
Later this plastic car will be fitted with its own drive units to become mobile. While low body stiffness prohibits any evaluation of handling, first driving tests can be made.
Meanwhile, engineers are working without pause at their design office drawing boards. They detail designs from the first half-year and work out finished drawings for engine, gearbox, axles and body platform.
Works Preparation comes in too, and has auxiliary tooling prepared for those parts which determine deadlines.
The Studio has long since become involved with interior styling. The procedure is similar to that for an exterior shape except that the interim 1 :5 model stage may be eliminated.
The best solutions are crystalized from a multitude of drawings and presented on a scale of 1 :1 in handmade mock-ups.
The car has taken shape by now, at least as far as its exterior is concerned, after roughly twelve months, and basic body functions can be evaluated.
The third half-year brings a maximum effort from Works Preparation and Testing for the first time, as well as from Product Planning.
While various sub-assemblies, normal models and outside vehicles using now-complete engine, gearbox and axles, are actually running, Works Preparation in collaboration with Engineering and Testing procures auxiliary tools and prototype parts.
In the meantime the hour has come for production line planning experts. They were kept informed from an early stage but now their efforts become decisive.
Their planning is equally vital to a satisfactory development outcome since their work decides whether the new car will emerge from development ready for rational production.
After some eighteen months the first "true" prototype stands on its wheels with engine and gearbox already past their first test runs.
During the fourth half-year test programs of the experimental department come to the fore. Here we must differentiate between functional testing concerned with fulfillment of handling quality and performance standards and testing for endurance which is concerned with quality and durability.
Such endurance runs include condensedtime experiments on the accelerated-test track. By using extreme conditions salt water splash, potholes, ramp jumps and other hardships materials can be subjected to demands which would only occur in normal driving after a far higher mileage.
At Weissach the test track program has achieved a factor of 1 so that miles of such testing correspond to roughly , miles of average customer driving.
This testing serves chiefly to check those components which cannot be evaluated for durability on a test bench with sufficient reality.
Fifth and sixth half-years: Testing continues and procurement begins. During further track and bench tests the main accent now falls on a number of details all-important to the later success of a vehicle, Proper compromises must be found; in engine or gearbox mounts between noise and vibration comfort; on the intake side between fuel consumption, exhaust decontamination and throttle Although any development center has climatic test chambers to simulate extreme operational conditions, "real" cold and heat tests are still found in the standard test program of many builders, At Porsche extensive runs in the Alps and on the Arctic Circle have become a firm component of cold-weather testing as well as evaluating handling on snow or ice.
The counterpart to this is a large-scale program in the North African desert where they not only test for extreme heat but over unbelievably bad desert tracks which provide an ideal supplement to tests already performed on shaker surfaces at home.
Sand and dust which penetrate every crevice are a phenomenon hated by any test driver but welcomed in the test program. Meanwhile the most important decision since the project began has been made.
This was a green light for the purchase of tooling, operational means of production and components. All previous decisions were made within the development budget but now that framework is considerably exceeded.
The project reaches a dimension from which there is virtually no retreat. The firm's management must ask itself one last time: are we going in the right direction with this development, will the car find its place on the market, is there even a sufficiently large market niche for i t - in short, does our bill of particulars work out at the bottom line?
Planning concepts must now include production drawings and the leeway for alterations thus becomes smaller. Despite this fact, experience drawn from test operations will initiate constant modification - and any developing automobile must live with that fact.
A small pre-series must be put onto wheels as rapidly as possible to give production and quality control experts an opportunity to gather experience with the new vehicle under near-production conditions.
This or that is bound to go wrong - not everything which seems smooth as silk in the test department will necessarily work out in production.
Based on experience gained and evaluated from this pre-series, an actual dress rehearsal or pilot series is launched roughly six months before production begins.
Once again a number of facts may be determined from this pilot series and applied before production actually begins, and these can cause redispositions.
Thus the final few months before production starts become a race against time and problems of all kinds.
This last major phase in development is always a high strain time for all concerned. It demands the willingness and ability to compromise and to make rapid decisions with flexiblity.
A proper crisis team is formed to solve problems which crop up daily. Actual test work has concluded in the meantime and all requirements in the project book have been fulfilled.
They have begun to fix the type, a further control procedure to some degree. Apart from national construction approval there are approximately one dozen registration tests to be passed in other lands.
Expenditures for safety and environmental protection made during the development phase were considerable and they increase steadily. The catalogue of such regulations has grown from roughly sixty laws in to over in It is understandable that engineers and experimental.
The long-demanded and urgently-needed standardization of norms for safety and evironmental protection lies far in the future - what one country may demand today will be forbidden by another.
The confusion inherent in such widely varied laws absorbs energy which could be far more usefully applied.
While production start up is being tested and type fixing is underway other segments of the firm have long-since become involved too.
Distribution prepares for the introduction of a new model to dealers and customers. Marketing concepts are developed, publicity strategy established and literature of all kinds printed.
Customer service men work at peak revs too - the entire inspection and repair system with its training of personnel, the writing of maintenance literature, technical outfitting of workshops and handling of warranties must be established, Spares of all kinds must be available and catalogued for day one.
And the very first customer will want his manual which- like all other literature- must be printed in various languages, Thus the circle from first sketch to production maturity is closing steadily.
Hundreds of workers were involved in the achievement, carrying heavy responsibilities and overcoming all difficulties. From this fact alone we can trace the most impressive characteristic of today's automobile development: its all-encompassing teamwork.
Automobiles are no longer built by individuals. They are never a one-man show any more. Whereas the first designs of ninety years ago were still the basic achievements of individual pioneers and while later cars, far into the thirties even, showed the clear hand of a designer ruling over his crew, the development of any automobile has now become a terribly complex and multilayered task which can only be solved by the perfect teamwork of a homogenous crew.
Porsche has often been described as the smallest among the auto factories and while this might be true within Germany, international comparisons prove the opposite.
Really small builders, particularly those of Italian or English persuasion, produce from 50 to cars annually.
Against these, Porsche's current annual production of over 15, units with a work force of some seems gigantic.
Isn't it more a case of the giant among small auto firms? The tradition-rich firm in Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen is truly the smallest real car forge, the David among giants, because Porsche is separated by whole worlds from the true small builders who are almost all in deep difficulty, incidentally.
A more or less handwork-style of production without in-house body construction, inadequate customer service nets, modest distribution channels and a lack of development capacity with limited test facilities - none of these factors are a problem for the Swabian sport car builder.
Porsche of Zuffenhausen, Weissach and Ludwigsburg bears all the features of a large automobile factory. How did this undertaking break the bounds of a small, handwork operation after ?
Was it business foresight or good fortune? A glance at the firm's development path indicates that both those components must have been involved.
We can assume that the prehistory - marked by the name of Ferdinand Porsche - is well known to all. Thus we will only recapitulate briefly here how the one-time technical director of Austro Daimler, Daimler Benz and Steyr opened his own design office in Stuttgart during And how this office made headlines for the first time with the Auto Union Grand Prix car.
How it launched the Volkswagen project on its own initiative, one which later made Professor Ferdinand Porsche immortal.
How this project was put through against every obstacle until a factory was created in Fallersieben later Wolfsburg under Porsche management, a plant destined to build the auto for everyman.
How this design office which settled into the Stuttgart industrial suburb of Zuffenhausen expanded to include an experimental department with its own workshops and how they developed cross-country vehicles during the war only to move to Gmund in Carinthia when the bombing began.
How postwar Volkswagen production began while Ferry Porsche and his people developed that first car in Gmund, based on the VW, which would carry the Porsche name.
And how, subsequently, the type went into limited production in a Zuffenhausen barracks, backed by the most restricted means. How the first car was completed at Easter to find customer favor and be followed by ever-growing numbers until the constantly expanded production facilities burst all seams and made large investments necessary.
And how too, Porsche cars achieved success after success on all levels of motor sport. These are the stages which turned this small firm with the big name into an automobile factory; That ended the era of grand improvisation, although the firm didn't yet have its own body plant.
A large portion of their bodies came from Reutter right next door. This changed in when Porsche took over Reutter, absorbing body construction into its own plant.
A further milestone came with the production of the which began in It was a Porsche which owed nothing to any mass production car.
Such design ambition was no coincidence but cold reality, based on solid foundations. After all, the firm was once a design office exclusively, working on outside contracts and this realm was never neglected, even when their own car production figures increased rapidly.
The fact that this firm continued to consider itself a specialist in vehicle development had far-reaching consequences. The increasing impossibility of performing entire test programs on open roads, the steadily growing need for new test facilities of all kinds and a lack of space in old Plant I all indicated to management that an independent future could only be secured with huge investments in the development realm.
The result of such farsighted thinking was the development center at Weissach. Between and one of the most modern development centers in the world grew up there, stage by stage.
Vehicles of all types can now be conceived, designed, built and tested. Weissach is located some eighteen miles west of Stuttgart, a short half-hour by car from Zuffenhausen.
Somewhat less successful was the quasi-marriage with an unmatched partner which Porsche undertook towards the end of the sixties.
At that time Zuffenhausen received extremely interesting development projects from Wolfsburg including the VW Porsche and EA , but found itself in turn removed, de facto, from the marketplace by VW since all distribution activities were taken over by a sales firm owned jointly by VW and Porsche.
The The former Kommanditgese. Ischaft known as the Dr. Ferry Porsche stepped down from active management of the firm at 62, to take over chairmanship of the board of overseers.
Although the firm remains entirely in the hands of the Porsche and Piech families, the younger Porsche and Piech generations stepped aside.
Ownership and management were separated, logically so in view of the dimensions this firm had achieved. A board was established which consisted originally of the engineer Dr.
Ernst Fuhrmann who later became Chairman and Heinz Branitzky, head of finance. The second major event of was cancellation of project EA , developed by Porsche.
Rudolf Leiding, new Chairman of the Board in Wolfsburg1 was forced to make this move by the less than successful model policies of his predecessors.
He had to put a beetle successor on the market quickly and in that situation he felt that the demanding mid-engine concept engine beneath the rear seat would be too risky.
The cancellation of project EA which was already in the midst of obtaining production tooling, meant a considerable loss of turnover for the Porsche development center which was partially operational by then.
Expected follow-up contracts for further development and model updating were dropped too of course. Since VW obviously faced further grave problems by then, it became questionable whether a contract then hanging in the balance for development of a successor to the VW Porsche could be realized either.
The end of project EA had a further unpleasant effect on Porsche's own model development plans. The new board was barely seated when it had to make extremely difficult decisions.
Around when the popularity curve of the model was heading towards its first peak, Engineering and Styling began to deal with first designs for a new model generation.
Such studies were taken up rather hesitantly in the small and overcrowded confines of Plant I - with good reason. For one thing the Porsche race department was in full bloom at that time and real race fever had infected the entire development branch.
The race car types , , , and were created at unbelievably short intervals, race engines of six, eight, twelve and even sixteen cylinders were developed and troops of half-company strength rushed from race course to race course.
This racing trend, which went overboard at times, absorbed a great deal of development capacity and money, although it certainly had its beneficial side as well: Porsche still profits from lessons learned then in lightweight construction and aerodynamics.
In addition, a dynamic young engineering cadre grew up under the auspices of such hectic racing participation, survived many baptisms under fire and later proved itself on all kinds of "civilian" projects.
At that point the seemed sure to achieve a life span which would equal that of the before it. The concept of this vehicle had proved very favorable for further develop-.
Thus they wanted to avoid any unnecessary restriction of technical possibilities which might result from starting a new development too soon. Furthermore, future exhaust and safety regulations were sprouting in those days, particularly in the United States, and their steady stiffening foreseen by the end of the seventies seemed to indicate it would be wise to avoid firm commitments.
This was particularly true for any follow-up generation which must aspire to another long model run. Extended model lives which allow better amortization of high investments are the be- and end-all for any small automobile manufacturer.
Finally there was another decisive reason for hesitation. Towards the end of the sixties it became more and more clear that one had arrived at a crossroads in questions of technical concept.
Would, or could, one remain with the rear engine and air cooling, characteristic features which the public considered untouchable Porsche dogma?
Or did the future belong to mid-engine sport cars which were already such a fixture of racing? Perhaps a classic design or even front-wheel drive might be viable alternatives?
The advantages and disadvantages of these various concepts were dispassionately weighed even in those days. Rear engines and air cooling were anything but holy and questioning them never taboo.
However they had to consider the question of whether customers would also Nevertheless, an end to both rear engines and air cooling became increasingly obvious.
Crash norms to come mitigated against the rear engine because its lack of a proper crush zone causes problems in rear-end crashes it is not the frontal crash which is problematic as SO many people believe.
There were also problems with the ever more stringent noise pollution laws since a rear engine car which is very quiet up front still has two noise sources in the rear: engine and exhaust exit.
There was the additional fact that this rear engine concept had a very bad reputation among opinion-shapers of the motoring press.
It carried the stigmas of oversteer, poor directional stability and high side-wind sensitivity criticisms which may once have been justified in part although anybody sitting in a new would scarcely notice any trace of such stumbling blocks today..
The ultimate change to liquid cooling seems, in fact, to have been dictated more by a desire for generally better noise suppression and greater heater comfort.
This almost automatically led to a preference for the sport car with mid-mounted engine, a building style offering optimal handling qualities, ft was thoroughly race-proven and could be described as "typically Porsche" since it matched the concept of that first successful mid-engine race car, the Auto Union Grand Prix machine which Porsche had developed after all.
Then there was all that valuable experience gained with the VW Porsche which had just gone into production. However this very experience brought up the question of whether a normal mid-engine arrangement powerplant placed longitudinally ahead of the rear axle was realty the proper path.
Every design option indicated that the problems of emergency seating and small storage space reachable from the cockpit could only be insufficiently solved, if at all.
And this was precisely the sore point of a In the US where there is certainly an interesting market tor pure two-seaters this car sold relatively well.
In Europe, however, market success was obviously made 1. Thus price class, comfort requirements and minimum safes figures urgently demanded a satisfactory solution to the extra seat problem and this was not forthcoming since alternate suggestions such as a transverse engine brought their own disadvantages.
Prospects for a promising mid-engine layout only made progress when they fell back on project during In that small car which Porsche had developed for VW the engine was placed under the rear seat after all, thus solving the space problem.
However, before a new Porsche could be based on that principle planning would have to take an entirely new direction. There was not enough space under the rear seat for the large, eight-cylinder engine they preferred.
The had used a flat four. The result wouldn't be a "big" Porsche to expand the line upwards but another "small" vehicle like the Of course this turnaround could have its pleasant aspects too.
As in the days of the they could base their work on a mass production car, using its body platform. That would reduce necessary investment, lower the price and make a larger series viable.
Work now concentrated solely on a sport car derived from that and history seemed destined to repeat itself.
Porsche would first develop a mass production car and then spin off a sport car under its own roof. The idea of a larger Porsche was not abandoned entirely but it received no further priority in plans of the time.
But all such plans capsized in the fall of Just as Dr. Ernst Fuhrmann, former successful Porsche engineer, then Technical Director at Goetze, the piston ring producer, returned to Zuffenhausen the equally-new VW boss, Rudolf Leiding, drew a fatal line through the well-advanced project EA Fuhrmann found a proper scrapheap in Zuffenhausen and the planned Porsche sport car lost its base.
They were back where they had begun and time was pressing. The was. Fuhrmann did two things in this situation. On one hand he immediately activated model improvements and further development of the which must support the firm for at least four to five more years.
In addition, motor racing entries by Porsche were immediately limited to racing versions of the which further stimulated development of that car and maintained the vehicle's image.
This introduced a surprising second spring for this fascinating machine which was destined to remain a favorite of buyers. On the other hand, a new project for the follow-up generation had to be launched immediately.
There was no time in this situation for large-scale market surveys to clarify the question of whether a "small" or a "large" Porsche would have the best chance or whether one or another drive system might be more readily accepted by customers.
Foresight, knowledge of the field and intuition had to answer all such questions. Increasing demands for comfort and future exhaust regulations spoke for the larger engine.
Customer structure and production capacity made it logical to remain in or above the price class. Thus they more or less returned to the path followed before leaning towards the However this brought the questions of engine arrangement and drive line up once again.
For we 'press the udder strongly' when we weigh with minute understanding the word of sacred revelation, by which way of pressing whilst we seek milk, we find butter, because, whilst we seek to be fed with but a little insight, we are anointed with the abundance of interior richness.
Which, nevertheless, we ought neither to do too much, nor at all times, lest, while milk is sought for from the udder, there should follow blood.
For very often, persons, whilst they sift the words of sacred revelation more than they ought, fall into a carnal apprehension.
For 'he draws forth blood who wringeth violently. The weary search for God. The man's saying, I have wearied myself about God, wearied myself about God—then did I withdraw!
Agur appears to have lived far away from the borders of the favoured land of Israel. If he was a Jew, he was one in exile, separated from the home of his people.
If he was an Ishmaelite, he was even outside the covenant of Israel, and in that case we have the striking picture of an Arab of antiquity anticipating Mahomet in breaking from the idolatry of his fathers.
Like Balsam, like Job, this resident in a heathen land looks up to the true God. Paul spoke to the Athenians of those who could "seek God, if haply they might feel after him, and find him" Acts ; and St.
Peter could acknowledge God's acceptance of all who look to him truly, no matter what race they might belong to Acts The natural search of the soul for God springs from certain great fundamental facts, viz.
God is the Father of all men. All men need God. All men are separated from God by sin, and therefore must feel naturally at a distance. The world needs God.
But the world has lost God. Hence the natural search for God. This is not the weariness of protracted thinking, the reaction from high mental tension.
It is worse than that; it is the weariness of a long and apparently fruitless search. Man cannot by searching find out God. God does not appear to respond to the inquiry of the seeking mind.
Even to the wisest of the Greeks he was "an Unknown God" Acts For God is not visible to the natural reason, nor is he ever seen excepting when he reveals himself.
Now, there is no weariness like that of a long and hopeless search. The sickness of despair then begins to tire the soul. Such weariness drives men at last to abandon the vain pursuit.
Agur said, "Then did I withdraw! This is the refuge of agnosticism. How vast is his created universe! No man can reach up to the starry altitudes of heaven, or dive into the deep mysteries of antiquity, to find the scope and range of the Divine activity.
The tremendous energy of nature overwhelms us. Science can investigate its laws, and in a measure make use of its forces; but they come out of a terrible darkness, and they transcend the control of so feeble a creature as man.
Agur did not simply distress himself with his own fruitless thinking. He knew something of the history of philosophy, and yet he had not been able to find one inquirer who had solved the terrible enigma over which his own heart was breaking.
Paul said to the Athenians, "Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you" Acts This is not an authoritative declaration of a dogma of Divinity.
The revelation of Christ is such that we can see it and understand it for ourselves. We can see that God is in Christ by observing the stamp of the Divine on his countenance—the signs of God in his life and work.
Then in knowing Christ we know God John Moreover, this revelation of God in Christ flashes a light on the huge mystery of the universe, and helps us to find God in nature.
The reconciliation between man and God, effected by the cross of Christ, removes the dark barrier of sin, which is the greatest hindrance to the soul in its search for God, and brings us into the presence of God, where we can behold "the beatific vision.
The purity of God's words. The search for God in thought and nature has ended in weariness. But Agur does not subside into agnosticism, much less does he renounce all higher thinking as "vanity of vanities," and plunge into Sadducean worldliness and Epicurean materialism.
On the contrary, though he gives up his ambitious quest with a sigh of disappointment, he learns to take a humbler path, on which he finds that God has shed light.
The mysteries of pure theology are wrapped in clouds, but the path of man's duty and the way of practical religion are illumined by the light of God's revealed truth.
This truth consists in more than those "regulative ideas," which are all that Mansel would have us expect to know, for it corresponds to the actual; it is fact and law of God's real spiritual world.
The Word of God is with us in the Bible and in Christ. In this Word the weary seeker after light may not find a star-spangled heaven, but he will see "a lamp to his feet" Psalms It is free from error.
This is not a matter of the language of the Bible, which is but the case that enshrines the holy revelation. The frame is not the picture. When we crack the nut we find that the kernel is sound and flawless.
The spiritual contents of revelation are infallible. It is free from moral corruption. Prurient minds have affected to be shocked at immoral stories in the Bible.
But what is most wonderful about the Scripture writers in respect to such matters is that, though they are bold enough to touch the most repulsive subjects, they never soil their fingers, nor do they ever soil the minds of their readers.
Only impure minds draw impure suggestions from the Bible, and such minds may find them anywhere. The Bible reveals man to himself, and declares God's estimate of sin.
It cannot cover over the foulest evil with a cloak of social propriety. The horrible things must be exposed in the interest of purity, that they may be denounced, and the doers of them put to shame.
It should inspire trust. For "he is a Shield to them that put their trust in him. The purity of this light is a security against danger.
It will not allure us into error, and it will not permit us to live in sin unrebuked and unwarned. Therefore the light is guiding, healing, saving.
With such a revelation we can afford to endure the insoluble character of great mysteries of theology. When vexed, perplexed, and wearied out, we can turn to the God who has thus made himself known to us, and quietly rest in his sheltering care.
It should also inspire reverere. This is a great warning that men have rarely heeded. We may think and utter our thoughts. But the fatal mistake is when we put forth our speculations as though they were a part of God's revelation.
This is a common sin of authoritative theology. Men's opinions—harmless enough in themselves, perhaps—have been added to the Scripture truths, and set before the world as unquestionable and Divine.
The interpretation of Scripture has been made as sacred as the text. Church dogma has claimed Divine authority. This is adding to God's words, and the danger of it is.
Neither poverty nor riches. A wise man here points out the danger of the two extremes of poverty and riches, and seeks for himself the happier middle position.
In the present day the enormous wealth of one class and the hard penury of another suggest serious social questions, and raise alarms as to great possible dangers unless the terrible anomaly of this artificial condition is not remedied.
The thought is of extreme poverty, of absolute destitution, or. Now, what is to be remarked here is that the great evil of excessive poverty pointed out in the passage before us is moral in character.
The sufferings of perjury are sad to contemplate. Those of us who have never known what it is to be really hungry cannot understand the pangs of the starving.
More tearful must be the trouble of parents who see their children crying for bread and cannot satisfy them. Yet the worst evil is not this suffering; it is the moral degradation that follows it.
Wolf-like hunger assimilates its victims to the nature of the wolf. It is hard to be honest when in want of food. The temptations of the poor are frightful to contemplate.
It is wonderful that there is so little crime, seeing that there is so much poverty. The grinding cares of poverty tend to wear the soul out, and blind its vision to spiritual truth.
The patience and good behaviour of the dumb, suffering multitudes of the distressed is indeed a sight to move our sympathy and excite our admiration.
The temptation of riches is not very unlike that of poverty in its character, but more deadly. Both extremes tempt to worldliness—poverty to worldly care, riches to worldly satisfaction.
The "care of this world" and "the deceitfulness of riches" stand together as the thorns that choke the good seed Matthew But riches goes further. It tempts a man to dispense with God.
Poverty tempts to theft, often, indeed, with extenuating circumstances. But riches tempts to scornful atheism. Christ saw this danger when he said, "How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of Grail" Mark On the other hand, when we see rich men who have conquered the exceptional temptations of their position, and who live a humble and useful Christian life, devoting their talents to the service of Christ, we should acknowledge that such victors over the world are deserving of especial honour.
We are here reminded of Aristotle's doctrine of "the mean. The lowering of the standard of right and wrong that comes from the peace-loving tendency to accept a compromise is disastrous to all conscientious conduct.
But now we have to do with a middle course between two external states, both of which are dangerous. If Christian people understood their mission in the world aright, in its breath and humanity, they would know that the call to preach the gospel of the kingdom includes the inculcation of those social principles which tens to blot out the present ugly picture of extreme poverty set off by extreme wealth.
A life that is neither crushed by care nor intoxicated by riches is the life in which it is least difficult to serve God and do right.
Therefore we should labour to help on a state of society in which more of such lives will be possible.
Self-deception in regard to the guilt of sin is the most common delusion of minds that have not been spiritually enlightened. However much men may know and acknowledge about themselves in other respects, on this vital point they are most tempted to go astray.
People have strong motives to think well of themselves. Conscience is so powerful and urgent that few men are able to brave a confession of sin before its awful bar, and yet continue in the practice of sin with equanimity.
For the sake of the peace of his mind, everybody naturally desires to stand well with his own conscience. Therefore there is a strong motive to lie to it, hoodwink it, cajole it; or, if these measures fail, to gag it, drown it, brand, or crush, or stamp it out—if possible to murder it.
Pride also makes a man desire his own self-approval. The "lofty eyes" are disinclined to see any evil within. It is inwardly humbling to hear, amidst the plaudits of a bamboozled world, a keen inner voice exclaiming, "Thou art a hypocrite, a liar, a knave!
Fear of coming judgment drives a man into a refuge of lies rather than to remain out in the open, exposed to the pitiless storm.
It is absurd, ostrich-like to hide one's head in the sand; but men are not always logical in their conduct. The feeling of danger disappears when a man persuades himself that he is innocent.
It springs from inclination. The temptation to flatter one's self helps to produce the delusion. Thus "the wish is father to the thought.
It is aided by a low standard of morals. Only when such a standard is prevalent and accepted will any sinful generation be capable of appearing pure in its own eyes.
The higher the standard, the greater the feeling of guilt. Therefore the most holy men, being also the most spiritually enlightened, have the deepest consciousness of sin.
It is further encouraged by the example of others. There is a whole "generation" of these self-deluded people. Each man finds his neighbour as bad as himself.
A single black sheep in the fold is marked by contrast with its fellows, and cannot but acknowledge its abnormal colour, but a whole flock of black sheep may readily forget that it is not white.
The generation is pure in its own eyes, but it is not washed from its filthiness. Self-deception does not cleanse. It only asserts what is false; it goes no way to make its assertion true.
It rather tends the other way, because there can be no effectual cleansing of the soul without confession and repentance. It does not hide sin.
It is not even a cloak thrown over what remains as foul as ever, though no longer visible. The generation may walk with lofty eyes, but its pride only deludes itself.
Others can see the shame in spite of all the guilty people's loud protestations. Self-deception does not lead to a deluding of God.
Self-deception must be exposed and punished. It is itself sinful. For the sinner to walk with a lofty gait is for him to court his doom. The safer course is to follow the example of the publican, who would not so much as lift up his eyes to heaven while he smote his breast and cried, "God be merciful to me a sinner!
The mystery of love. The ship cuts the surface for a moment, and then the waves roll over its path, and in a short time every trace of its passage is lost in the wash of the waters.
So it is with the fourth mystery. The course of human love cannot be predicted or explained. It cannot be made to follow rule and precedent or to correspond to fond parental wishes.
Love will go its own way free as the eagle in the air, unsuspected as the serpent on the rock, untracked as the ship in the sea.
The three earlier wonders lead on to the fourth, and help to give colour and weight to it. The whole sentence thus gathers up its force into a climax.
Nothing is so wonderful in the natural world as the great mystery of love. This may take three forms—. Love can never be coerced.
A forced marriage cannot be a love match. It is natural that man and maid should learn to love one another of their own accord, by the drawing of mutual sympathy.
Friends may guide, warn, encourage, or hinder. But a matter which concerns the lifelong happiness of two souls cannot be well arranged by worldly contrivances.
Nevertheless, love that is untamed and utterly uncontrolled may lead to frightful mistakes, to folly and sin and shame. The eagle is a wild and dangerous bird—a terror to the helpless lamb.
Love becomes a cursed thing, near to hatred, when it is no better than a wild, unfettered passion. This is a very ugly picture, from which we start back shuddering and in horror.
There is a snake-like cunning in selfish lust that wickedly usurps the sacred name of love, when it is really the very incarnation of hellish venom, seeking to allure its prey to destruction.
All low, carnal lust is of the type of the serpent. The wild passion that follows the eagle's flight may be dangerous, but the cold, loveless course of deliberate vice is deadly as that of a viper.
The ship is a home on the waters. She carries freight and passengers—wealth and life. She sails from one port and she seeks another in a far-off land.
But she cannot see her distant haven; she knows not what fierce tempests she may have to encounter; her way is uncertain and dangerous.
Married life is a voyage over unknown waters. But where there is true love the vessel is well ballasted; she carries a cargo richer than untold ingots of gold; her crew work peacefully without fear of mutiny.
Under such circumstances, though there is mystery, hearts that trust in God need fear no shipwreck of love and happiness.
Four weak things, and the greatness of them. The four little creatures that are here mentioned all illustrate the wonderful way in which the disadvantages of weakness may be overcome by some countervailing quality.
In the spiritual world Christianity teaches us to look for the triumph of weakness—the weak things of the world confounding the things which are mighty 1 Corinthians Now, we have illustrations from nature for the same principle.
Each of the four creatures teaches us its own special lesson, as each conquers its weakness by some separate and distinctive quality.
The ant succeeds by foresight, the coney by finding shelter, the locust by organization, and the lizard by quiet persistency.
This is a triumph of wind. The ant is in some respects the most wonderful creature in the world; for it seems to be about equal in intelligence to the elephant, which is not only the greatest, but also the most intelligent of the larger animals.
A bull, so immensely greater than an ant in body, is far smaller in mind. Similarly, man's lordship over the animal world is a triumph of mental power.
The driver is weaker in body than the horse he drives, but he has a stronger mind. We shall triumph in the world just in proportion as we develop our inner life.
This is a triumph of industry. The ant rebukes the sluggard Proverbs It is a triumph of patience. The ant toils for the future. Herein is its true strength.
Men who care only for the passing moment are shallow and weak. We are strong in proportion as we live in the future.
But their instinct leads them to live among the rocks, and hide themselves in dark caves and inaccessible crevices. Thus the strength of the hills is theirs.
When there is no hope of holding our ground in the open field, we may find shelter in the Rock of Ages. If souls have their instincts in a healthy condition, these will drive them to the true shelter, and there weakness will be safe.
Though the locusts have no king, they are able to make successful marches over miles of country, and to completely devastate the lands they visit.
They do not waste their time by flying hither and thither, and by opposing one another. They all move on in solid phalanx.
This instinctive order secures success. It teaches us that the welfare of the individual must be subordinate to that of the community. If a small stream has to be crossed, the myriads of locusts who are so unfortunate as to be in the van of the mighty army fall in and fill up the bed till they make a causeway that can be used by their fellows.
The victory of man is got through the suffering and death of many self-sacrificing heroes. In the Church the cause of Christ will best triumph when all Christians move together in harmony, all seeking to win the world for the kingdom of heaven.
The little lizard is found in king's palaces because he can stick to the walls, and so run into unlooked for places out of the way of men.
It is a great thing to be able to hold on. Quiet perseverance wins many a victory. Patient endurance is crowned in the end with glorious success.
In the highest things, "he that endureth unto the end, the same shall be saved" Mark Each of the four here brought before us excites admiration for a successful course.
As in former illustrations, the images rise up to a climax, and what is exhibited separately in the earlier ones is united and completed in the final image.
True success is good. There are various forms of success. Some are more disgraceful than failure. A low end easily won, or a desirable goal reached by foul means, gives a worthless and even a detestable victory.
But when both means and end are good, there is something admirable in success. This success is continuous. The most worthy triumph is not that of a sudden victory snatched at the end of a long, doubtful contest, but the carrying out of a course that is good throughout—a constant series of small daily victories over danger.
Thus the lion is admired, not merely because he can bring down his prey by means of a long chase, or after patiently waiting for it in ambush, but because "he turneth not away for any," and of all four the excellence is that they "go well.
This success is measured by the difficulties overcome. We gauge strength by what it can do, and the best standard may not give visible results in acquisition.
The proof may be seen more in triumph over obstacles. He who persists through all hardship and danger enduring to the end, and faithful unto death, is the true soldier of Christ.
The good and admirable may be of different forms. Success of the highest kind will be got by each using his own talents, not by any vainly imitating those of another.
The lion cannot copy the goat's agility, nor the greyhound the lion's strength. Four methods of success are here suggested.
Success may be won by indomitable energy. This is the characteristic of the lion. He is strong, and he "turneth not away for any.
It may be got by swiftness. The greyhound is a feeble creature compared to the lion. Its glory is in its speed.
There is a victory for nimbleness of mind as well as of body. It may be reached by agility , The hound can fly like the wind over the plain; and the he goat can pick its way among the crags of the precipice and climb to dizzy heights.
They are not like the eagle that soars on its wings, for the quadruped must always have some foothold, but with this it can stand without fear in the most precarious positions.
Skilful agility will enable one to triumph over difficulties, escape snares and pitfalls, and rise to daring heights.
It may be attained by human qualities. Man is feeble as a coney compared to the lion, slow as a tortoise in the presence of the greyhound, lame and timorous beside that audacious mountaineer the goat.
But he can master and outdo all these creatures by the use of mental and spiritual powers. Each of the four is known by its success, as none would be known if the animals were caged in a menagerie, and the king left to enjoy empty pageantry.
The kingly faculty is not only recognized on a throne. As the power to govern, it is witnessed in business, in society, and in intellectual regions.
There are born kings. We see how stirring times bring such men to the front as the Civil Wars revealed Cromwell. The noblest earthly career is to be a true leader of men.
He who stands at the head of the great human family was and is a Divine King, and his triumph is in his ruling even through shame and death.
It is not always equally demanded of us. There are times for expression, times when we should break reserve and give forth freely the thoughts and purposes of our souls.